구미출장샵£예약금없는출장샵❣구미강릉 모텔 가격〔구미발산역 안마방〕╃{구미정준호 안마방}╟구미남친이랑 마사지☀구미체코 마사지 fc2♂구미남자 마사지◈구미안마방 태국녀♙구미천안 출장 마사지

As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

평택출장샵
French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

구미출장샵↰24시출장샵♪ 구미강릉 모텔 가격〔구미안마방 순서〕╥{구미태국 마사지 마무리}☏구미방콕 마사지 가격╢구미안와상융기 마사지➶구미콜걸샵☱구미신사역 마사지➚구미구디 안마방

The governments of more than 190 nations 영암마사지 하드 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

구미출장샵↺24시출장샵ナ구미강릉 모텔 가격〔구미마사지 발기〕┮{구미코스프레 안마방}✌구미오일 마사지 야동ロ구미베트남 마사지♦구미동탄 안마방✈구미안마방 비아그라☎구미일베 모텔

Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

구미출장샵§예약금없는출장샵U구미강릉 모텔 가격〔구미다방 티켓 썰〕❥{구미출장전화번호}⇠구미상무지구 마사지◆구미한국 마사지 야동┃구미마사지 ssul☼구미출장연애인급➻구미맹인 마사지

Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 부산출장안마 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

구미출장샵◘24시출장샵♫구미강릉 모텔 가격〔구미섹시 마사지〕➨{구미눈붓기빼는 마사지}╬구미장애인 안마방☼구미안마방 여자친구☈구미한국인 마사지↖구미오야넷 마사지∷구미가산동 안마방

They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 목포출장마사지 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

구미출장샵♝출장부르는법┏구미강릉 모텔 가격〔구미대전 마사지 후기〕◘{구미신데렐라 안마방}ヘ구미안마방 질내사정ψ구미안마방 와꾸☴구미예약금 없는 출장 샵║구미국노┩구미강서구청 마사지

No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 구미출장안마 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

구미출장샵구미한물간 연예인 안마방

  • 영주24시간 안마방
  • 구미레즈 마사지
  • 구미출장샵
  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    구미출장샵☚ 예약금없는출장샵♬구미강릉 모텔 가격〔구미부평 에이스 안마방〕┚{구미안마방 텀블}⇪구미겨드랑이 마사지♫구미마포구 안마방↿구미천안역 근처 모텔✔구미용인 안마방♠구미부부 마사지

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 광양라오스 마사지 2차 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 카지노사이트 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    카지노사이트
    서울안마사 자격증 jtvx.xyz 양평안마방 젤
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 울산출장안마 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    구미출장샵♪예약금없는출장샵✿구미강릉 모텔 가격〔구미광주 마사지〕╣{구미최음 마사지}✒구미부평 에이스 안마방⊿구미모텔 여자♟구미군산 마사지♙구미안마방 ssul❦구미동래 마사지

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 부평타이마사지 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    구미출장샵↮예약금없는출장샵↤구미강릉 모텔 가격〔구미마사지 porn〕♣{구미구미 모텔}☍구미상봉 안마방☭구미안마방 야간┳구미광주 안마방 후기ν구미조건 카톡➸구미출장만남

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 수원출장안마 .

    전라북도국산_신작_안마방
    김제안동 안마방 jub.xyz 봉화안마방 나이
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    구미출장샵╚예약ノ구미강릉 모텔 가격〔구미대전 마사지 후기〕①{구미평택 안마방}⇃구미상인동 안마방☜구미동네 안마방メ구미경마 예상 지존 대회♘구미연산 안마방♛구미출장시

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 카지노사이트 .

    구미출장샵╏24시출장샵㍿구미강릉 모텔 가격〔구미향남 마사지〕↪{구미안마방 몰래}リ구미토요 경마┸구미안산 안마방χ구미호치민 마사지 추천0구미안마방 일베✐구미신도림 마사지

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 창원출장안마 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 충청남도화정 마사지 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    구미출장샵▪24시출장샵☭구미강릉 모텔 가격〔구미지저분한 섹스 나고야 여성 마사지〕♘{구미마사지 방법}✐구미중리동 안마방◐구미전립선 마사지 기구W구미유부녀 마사지↺구미안마방 한번싸면♦구미일본 성인 마사지

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    구미출장샵♡예약㊣구미강릉 모텔 가격〔구미조건 만남〕⇥{구미중국 안마방}⇀구미고딩 마사지↜구미간석오거리 안마방↩구미천안 카페ν구미나주 마사지⇦구미홍대 안마방

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 금산인천 안마방 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 대구출장안마 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. dr-choi.xyz .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 삼척군포 안마방 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 대구출장안마 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    구미출장샵✎예약η구미강릉 모텔 가격〔구미지저분한 섹스 나고야 여성 마사지〕♡{구미라오스 마사지 2차}⇁구미청라 마사지↼구미남성전용 마사지➻구미행신 안마방♐구미필승 안마방•구미일본 마사지 노모

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 구미출장안마 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 카지노사이트 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 온라인카지노 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    구미출장샵▫24시출장샵↠구미강릉 모텔 가격〔구미소라넷 이벤트〕┙{구미안마방 ssul}↷구미마사지 자격증 종류┛구미대전복합터미널 마사지⇔구미강서 안마방❥구미언양 마사지▥구미video.fc2.com 마사지

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    청양광주 안마방
    천안출장샵 울진모텔 아가씨 수원출장안마
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    구미출장샵◄예약금없는출장샵オ구미강릉 모텔 가격〔구미마사지 검색〕❦{구미야탑 마사지 후기}╠ 구미발안 모텔ⓥ구미마사지 물§구미천안 오피스◀구미서울 출장안마♩구미고양이 안마방

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.구미출장샵구미해운대 아가씨✯구미계양구 안마방┬{구미부평 안마방}구미탑 클래스➷구미필리핀 안마방⇂구미포항 여관◑구미카오산로드 마사지♫온라인카지노출장부르는법구미혼자 안마방♕구미마사지 방법♫﹛구미푸켓 크리스틴 마사지﹜구미화곡 마사지┥구미마사지 토렌토♘구미마사지 도구⇛구미팔자주름 마사지⇚구미출장샵포천안마방 강남구미분당 안마방⇀구미태국 마사지 불법░‹구미냥이 마사지›구미스웨디시 마사지 정의⇁구미휴게텔 안마방 차이●구미안마방 왕가슴녀☆구미외국인출장만남▷구미화성 마사지™구미출장샵추천➻〈구미강남 안마방 가격〉구미타이 마사지 썰┿구미베트남 마사지☲구미온양 마사지↹구미마사지 로드샵⇛구미이동국 안마방☏구미림프 마사지 금기 사항▣【구미안마방 후기】구미서울대입구 안마방☂구미철산 안마방▶구미안마방 노콘↷구미잠실 마사지レ구미머리 마사지◆구미양구 안마방➠『구미대학동 마사지』구미마사지 품번★구미정자 안마방❉구미아주대 안마방▧ 구미모유수유 마사지┨예약금없는출장샵영월강원랜드 근처 마사지예약금없는출장샵구미마사지 사진♣구미마포구 안마방╬‹구미안마방 위치›구미출장서비스↪구미수안보 마사지┠구미전화 tumblr↼구미안마방 빡촌┣구미출장샵구미출장샵울산출장안마구미정준하 마사지구미구의 마사지구미마포구 안마방구미송강동 마사지구미출장샵구미정선 사북 마사지♂구미강서구 마사지⇩{구미수유 마사지}구미안마방 누드✁구미대구 안마방 후기ε구미안마방 코스☑구미코 마사지 전후ღ칠곡안산 마사지

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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