예약금없는출장샵
  • 함안실제 일본 안마방
  • 천안출장샵
  • 카지노사이트
  • 고창마산 마사지
  • 함안출장안마☆출장부르는법ヒ함안성대역 안마방{함안용산 마사지}◐〔함안응암동 마사지〕↜함안인천 서구 마사지レ함안마사지 도구☻함안베이징 안마방⇛함안성신여대 마사지┟함안일산 타이 마사지

    As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

    카지노사이트
    French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

    함안출장안마❀예약♛함안성대역 안마방{함안조건 만남 카페}ⓥ〔함안남친이랑 마사지〕◎함안마사지 추천☈함안안마방 한국야동⇙함안논현동 안마방ヨ함안미금역 마사지➛함안홍성 안마방

    The governments of more than 190 nations 청양동두천 안마방 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

    함안출장안마╣출장부르는법✕함안성대역 안마방{함안김해 안마방}▶〔함안말레이시아 마사지〕☺함안마사지 홈런┸함안서혜부 마사지❤함안안마방 fc2⇪함안야동 마사지⇐함안출장마사wl

    Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

    Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

    함안출장안마┠24시출장샵✐함안성대역 안마방{함안하당 마사지}╀〔함안전립선 마사지 효과〕♚함안맛사지●함안어깨 마사지☜함안정자역 마사지╇함안안마방 청룡열차♭함안음부 마사지

    Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 온라인카지노 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

    함안출장안마▶예약❀함안성대역 안마방{함안서울출장안마}⇛〔함안대학로 마사지〕✡함안영등포 마사지↿함안상봉 안마방┄함안턱근육 마사지▬함안군산 터미널 모텔↹함안안마방 서비스

    They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

    Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 익산서울역 안마방 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

    함안출장안마➧예약┘함안성대역 안마방{함안시화 안마방}☣〔함안안마방 알바 후기〕❖함안전주 여관✡함안구글재펜☏함안안마방 ssulユ함안다낭 vip 마사지⇛함안오키나와 마사지

    No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 온라인카지노 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

    함안출장안마함안울산 마사지

  • 고령경성대 마사지
  • 함안마사지 침대
  • 함안출장안마
  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    함안출장안마λ출장부르는법☻함안성대역 안마방{함안안마방 오픈시간}┷〔함안안마방 ts〕⇪함안안마방 에이스 토렌트☆함안군대 안마방♦함안수유역 마사지☭함안유재석 안마방⇪함안해수욕 마사지

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 영암밀양 안마방 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 대전출장샵 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    대전출장안마
    고흥어방동 마사지 천안출장샵 수원티켓 썰
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 천안출장샵 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    함안출장안마☀예약금없는출장샵☀함안성대역 안마방{함안타이마사지 섹스}╍〔함안마사지 레전드 품번〕ハ함안계룡시 안마방♨함안부산 모텔 아가씨⇟함안안마방 아줌마♩함안영통 마사지✃함안씨엠립 마사지

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 양양수안보 마사지 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    함안출장안마»예약금없는출장샵╛함안성대역 안마방{함안안마방 한번싸면}✿〔함안출장샵 예약금〕✎함안탈모 마사지◙함안fc2 한국 마사지❖함안섹슈얼 마사지┮함안안마방 수입❤함안평택 마사지

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 카지노사이트 .

    양구전주 마사지
    고성마사지 자격증 종류 목포출장안마 하남마사지 간판 구분
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    함안출장안마┒24시출장샵☎함안성대역 안마방{함안전효성 마사지}➴〔함안부산역 마사지〕▌함안거제 옥포 안마방キ함안유방 마사지╨함안상인동 안마방ハ함안올탈 마사지✆함안군대 안마방

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 창원출장샵 .

    함안출장안마╈예약금없는출장샵↔함안성대역 안마방{함안여친 마사지}┌〔함안중국모델 슈가〕☢함안러시아 마사지➥함안세부 마사지 엑스트라ヨ함안안마방 발기❉함안얼굴 마사지 기계┲함안구로디지털단지 마사지

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 군산출장안마 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 창원헬로우 드림 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    함안출장안마△출장부르는법♘함안성대역 안마방{함안신림 안마방}♠〔함안마사지〕♧함안안마방 파워배드◇함안체코 마사지☏함안피로회복 마사지╚함안단체 안마방♐함안성수역 마사지

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    함안출장안마✿예약금없는출장샵┄함안성대역 안마방{함안상봉 안마방}┇〔함안진접 안마방〕♡함안오피스텔 아가씨☆함안마사지 토렌토↹함안남성전용 마사지オ함안안마방 토렌트ヨ함안안마방 촬영

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 고창출장만남 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 바카라사이트 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 대전출장샵 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 충청북도지저분한 섹스 나고야 여성 마사지 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 바카라사이트 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    함안출장안마↩24시출장샵╂함안성대역 안마방{함안손목 마사지}×〔함안천안안마〕★함안안마방 전화⇟함안전립선 마사지 tumblr┋함안냉정 안마방╮함안마사지 효능┹함안하단 마사지

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 카지노사이트 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: wgma.xyz showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 온라인카지노 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    함안출장안마╈24시출장샵┛함안성대역 안마방{함안안마방 몰카 torrent}♣〔함안오피 투샷〕☢함안봉천 안마방◐함안안마방 도찰☾함안전립선 마사지 야동☒함안안마방 다녀온♩함안정선 마사지

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    함평여성 전용 마사지
    창원출장안마 평택흥출장안마 창원출장샵
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    함안출장안마♔예약금없는출장샵√함안성대역 안마방{함안마사지 노모}ψ〔함안광주 여관〕♨함안양구 안마방┑함안안마방 정보⇚함안마사지 물╏함안출장서비스▥함안경추성 두통 마사지

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.함안출장안마함안마석 안마방❥함안천안 마사지 ㅁㅁㄹ↘〔함안철산 안마방〕함안인덕원 마사지↪함안오창 마사지↹함안상하이 마사지↔함안스타 안마방☐창원출장안마24시출장샵함안강릉 타이 마사지♮함안안산 대딸방★﹝함안원주 마사지﹞함안마사지 토렌↕함안타이 마사지ヤ함안안마방 움짤↟함안강남 전립선 마사지☂함안출장안마밀양안마방 얼마함안마사지 품번 추천♪ 함안안마방 알바 단속┄{함안화정 마사지}함안울산 안마방⇜함안서귀포 마사지☟함안안마방 대기➻함안안산 고잔동 마사지◣함안이상근 마사지▥함안포항 모텔 추천⇔【함안av 에이미】함안만짜이 마사지◄함안지저분한 섹스 나고야 여성 마사지①함안소주잔 마사지⇛함안video fc2 마사지↚함안마곡 마사지☪함안중국 마사지 종류κ〖함안안마방 홈런〗함안나주 마사지◣함안퇴폐 마사지○함안마사지 수면✡함안산본 마사지 후기➻함안국 안마방 초이스»함안전주 터미널 모텔⇖(함안출장코스가격)함안선릉역 마사지♪ 함안y존 마사지☆함안은평구 안마방ρ함안태국 마사지 torrent㍿예약강원도콜걸후기출장부르는법함안주안 여관◥함안청라 마사지♗{함안강릉 모텔 가격}함안치앙마이 마사지✔함안출장샵강추♠함안유두 마사지↬함안기흥구청 마사지↤함안출장안마함안출장안마구미출장안마함안광대뼈 축소 마사지함안안마방 서울함안출장 마사지 썰함안선릉 안마방함안출장안마함안성대역 안마방┷함안모텔 보도♦【함안미시 마사지】함안출장오피↔함안송탄 여관⇛함안창동 마사지♞함안금천구 안마방→양양부천 마사지 추천

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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