예약
  • 의왕고관절 마사지
  • 대구출장샵
  • 서울출장샵
  • 전주어스파
  • 의왕출장샵⇊출장부르는법♣의왕안마방 만화〖의왕성대역 안마방〗◀{의왕출장안마}╛의왕안마방 청룡열차⇛의왕호치민 1군 마사지➚의왕평촌 마사지☻의왕허리 마사지┒의왕속초 안마방

    As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

    군산출장안마
    French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

    의왕출장샵◐예약금없는출장샵♥의왕안마방 만화〖의왕사상 안마방〗⇐{의왕모텔}┶의왕대전 모텔 다방➛의왕페니스 마사지┓의왕마포구청 마사지◊의왕국산 마사지♪의왕태국 전통 마사지 단속

    The governments of more than 190 nations 문경서울 안마방 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

    의왕출장샵┐24시출장샵●의왕안마방 만화〖의왕답십리 마사지〗┮{의왕서울샵}┌의왕필승 안마방❁의왕전주 여관⇡의왕부산 마사지 추천✂의왕인도 마사지☇의왕마사지 포르노

    Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

    Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

    의왕출장샵カ출장부르는법♩의왕안마방 만화〖의왕타이 마사지 서비스〗↔{의왕안마방 알바}ソ의왕연신내 안마방◇의왕남편 마사지▨의왕출장 마사지═의왕대전 안마방 후기»의왕club 마사지

    Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 카지노사이트 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

    의왕출장샵ヒ예약금없는출장샵↺의왕안마방 만화〖의왕마사지 출장〗✲{의왕동대구역 모텔 추천}⇪의왕남편 안마방╫의왕정왕동 안마방웃의왕출장 마사지✔의왕안마방 아영이 토렌트╁의왕강원도 안마방

    They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

    Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 서산마사지 구분 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

    의왕출장샵♟예약금없는출장샵⇔의왕안마방 만화〖의왕사상 안마방〗☀{의왕원주 마사지}☳의왕fc2 마사지♪ 의왕안마방 벌금♦의왕홈 타이 마사지☀의왕천안 안마방┗의왕강남구청 안마방

    No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 서울출장샵 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

    의왕출장샵의왕양구 안마방

  • 임실타이 마사지 꿀팁
  • 의왕fc2 일본 마사지
  • 의왕출장샵
  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    의왕출장샵♟24시출장샵↠의왕안마방 만화〖의왕모텔 걸〗↕{의왕타이마사지 팁 서비스}ヒ의왕수내역 마사지█의왕강남 안마방 내상ⓞ의왕턱살 마사지●의왕전립선 마사지 하는 법╌의왕턱근육 마사지

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 단양회음부 마사지 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 평택출장샵 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    카지노사이트
    인제군자역 안마방 전주출장안마 합천서현역 마사지
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 카지노사이트 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    의왕출장샵➚출장부르는법⇍의왕안마방 만화〖의왕태국 여행 마사지〗╔{의왕상주 안마방}✂의왕동두천 마사지➻의왕눈붓기빼는 마사지⇦의왕안마방 초이스♜의왕마사지 근육♩의왕안산 줄리엣 마사지

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 영덕사상 출장 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    의왕출장샵☏예약금없는출장샵┥의왕안마방 만화〖의왕안마방 porn〗☆{의왕출장샵 예약금}⇖의왕마사지 종류⇠의왕페니스 마사지▀의왕안산 마사지♡의왕노량진 안마방▼의왕태국 마사지 마무리

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 서울출장안마 .

    진해콜걸업소
    광주스웨디시 마사지 후기 카지노사이트 진주천안 출장 마사지
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    의왕출장샵☒출장부르는법►의왕안마방 만화〖의왕서양 마사지 토렌트〗◦{의왕와이프 마사지}⇏의왕얼굴 경락 마사지❃의왕안마방 못쌈┑의왕성균관대역 마사지▬의왕베트남 안마방☏의왕안마방 퇴폐

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. dkevent.xyz .

    의왕출장샵◀예약✌의왕안마방 만화〖의왕경주 마사지〗☀{의왕안마방 한번싸면}✄의왕신당동 안마방↿의왕양재역 마사지♨의왕아주동 마사지♡의왕야 동 마사지⇤의왕출장맛사지

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 카지노사이트 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 진해안마방 서울 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    의왕출장샵☈24시출장샵┤의왕안마방 만화〖의왕여주 안마방〗メ{의왕정자역 마사지}♦의왕창원 봉곡동 안마방☇의왕왕십리 안마방➡의왕가산동 안마방┏의왕허벅지 마사지⇡의왕남성 마사지

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    의왕출장샵┨예약█의왕안마방 만화〖의왕마사지 흥분〗ウ{의왕정준호 안마방}オ의왕대전복합터미널 마사지←의왕24시 마사지▣의왕안마⊙의왕사우나 마사지ξ의왕마사지 gif

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 제주군자역 안마방 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 카지노사이트 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 대전출장샵 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 동두천남성전용 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that anma4you.xyz . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    의왕출장샵⇗예약금없는출장샵✙의왕안마방 만화〖의왕자궁 마사지〗✤{의왕전주 안마방}▷의왕불광 여관↑의왕맹인 마사지┱의왕만짜이 마사지╗의왕출장미인아가씨1의왕타이 안마방

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 군산출장안마 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 군산출장샵 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 카지노사이트 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    의왕출장샵╣출장부르는법♡의왕안마방 만화〖의왕안마방 ㅇㄷ〗ⓛ{의왕상동 안마방}✿의왕안마방 bj0의왕여성 마사지 후기◘의왕사각근 마사지☄의왕방이동 여관♨의왕대구 출장 마사지

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    울진동해 마사지
    구미출장안마 경상남도마사지 흥분 airportservice.xyz
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    의왕출장샵タ예약⇞의왕안마방 만화〖의왕마사지 유출〗▶{의왕홍방장 안마방}✯의왕보지 마사지☈의왕안마방 욕⇞의왕안마방 실사♪의왕오리역 안마방✖의왕요괴 마사지

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.의왕출장샵의왕앙헬레스 마사지✌의왕안마방 알바 구하는법囍{의왕50m}의왕중국 우한 마사지┼의왕일산 타이 마사지➴의왕두정동 마사지£의왕아침 안마방━온라인카지노출장부르는법의왕국 안마방♗의왕이종찬 마사지♀(의왕안마방 싼)의왕성감 마사지◎의왕평택역 안마방”의왕길동 안마방キ의왕안마방 avi╳의왕출장샵장성신천 안마방의왕안마방 20대✤의왕의정부 모텔 가격♥『의왕렉시벨 마사지』의왕가평 안마방✔의왕마사지 대딸╚의왕성균관대역 마사지◑의왕베트남 다낭 마사지✣의왕성대역 안마방⊥의왕출장마사지☭(의왕출장마사지)의왕전립선 마사지┛의왕문산 안마방╦의왕세부 마사지✍의왕안마방 후기✦의왕연수동 마사지タ의왕베트남 안마방➻(의왕청라 마사지)의왕검빛 경마 검색ღ의왕안마방 떡▄의왕커플 마사지 후기⊕의왕잠실 마사지☏의왕에로 마사지☀의왕마사지 몰 카╧(의왕정준하 마사지)의왕출장 카톡⇥의왕안마방 몰카 tumblr☢의왕예약╤의왕봉담 마사지↥24시출장샵청양안마방 입에 사정예약의왕서산 마사지ξ의왕연수동 마사지⇦〖의왕순천 타이 마사지〗의왕렉시벨 마사지⊙의왕남자 마사지⇪의왕토렌트 안마방↕의왕콜걸┣의왕출장샵의왕출장샵부산출장샵의왕국 노의왕안마방 레베카의왕마사지 흥분의왕마송 여관의왕출장샵의왕코 마사지 전후⇊의왕출장 카톡┌‹의왕안마방 정보›의왕유성 마사지♧의왕아산 마사지↿의왕안마방 몇시¤의왕안마방 모닝콜☆대구강릉 안마방

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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