예약금없는출장샵
  • 포항라페스타 안마방
  • 천안출장샵
  • 온라인카지노
  • 대전천호 안마방
  • 포항출장샵♠출장부르는법◑포항탄트라 마사지(포항황제 마사지)♣{포항태국 마사지 마무리}◥포항쥬니공주 안마방┩포항김천 안마방┦포항마사지 사이트▧ 포항다이소 마사지↕포항출장업소

    As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

    천안출장샵
    French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

    포항출장샵▷예약☃포항탄트라 마사지(포항영등포역 안마방)»{포항타이마사지 불법}✍포항출장 오피☄포항해피 오렌지 출장 샵⇛포항철원 안마방↖포항휘성 안마방✲포항민락동 마사지

    The governments of more than 190 nations 해남마사지 핸플 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

    포항출장샵✂예약▄포항탄트라 마사지(포항부산 사상 출장)→{포항머리 마사지}θ포항마사지 교육オ포항산호동 마사지╂포항구글 재펜☀포항안마방 경험⇜포항콜걸샵

    Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

    Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

    포항출장샵➻출장부르는법♙포항탄트라 마사지(포항한대앞 마사지)ノ{포항마송 안마방}☃포항안마방 커뮤니티↿포항연예인 안마방╦포항전북 안마방┫포항운서역 안마방▨포항안마방 모음

    Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 온라인카지노 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

    포항출장샵↤24시출장샵⇆포항탄트라 마사지(포항삼계 안마방)●{포항대학로 마사지}0포항의정부 모텔 가격■포항대구 마사지↾포항상하이 마사지╅포항회음부 마사지✍포항남편 마사지

    They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

    Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 남원안마방 빨리싸면 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

    포항출장샵↩24시출장샵ξ포항탄트라 마사지(포항안마방 무한)┑{포항어깨 마사지}╈포항위례 마사지☀포항안마방 알바♥포항안마방 벌금╪포항호텔 걸▌포항붕따우 마사지

    No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 전주출장안마 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

    포항출장샵포항스웨 디시 마사지 란

  • 시흥여인숙 가격
  • 포항오목교 안마방
  • 포항출장샵
  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    포항출장샵↺예약⇜포항탄트라 마사지(포항천안 마사지 ㅁㅁㄹ)◈{포항강서 안마방}➷포항군포 마사지▌포항마곡 마사지☺포항베이징 안마방ロ포항출장업계위┡포항서산 마사지

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 평택타이 마사지 꿀팁 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 바카라사이트 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    온라인카지노
    광주안마방 전화번호 평택출장샵 춘천여인숙 가격
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 전주출장샵 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    포항출장샵┮예약囍포항탄트라 마사지(포항햄스터 마사지)♯{포항고추 마사지}⇡포항마사지 카페▧ 포항혼자 안마방┨포항안마방 터치☏포항한대앞 마사지↙포항여성전용 마사지 구인

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 정읍홍대 안마방 위치 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    포항출장샵☊출장부르는법モ포항탄트라 마사지(포항현풍 마사지)✒{포항출장 카톡}◢포항유재석 안마방♬포항팔 마사지▧포항김해 출장 마사지▦포항미약 마사지♩포항마사지 관리사

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 서울출장안마 .

    홍천모텔출장
    하남언양 마사지 군산출장샵 양산부산 서면 출장
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    포항출장샵⇪예약금없는출장샵•포항탄트라 마사지(포항출장가격)✄{포항크리스마스 안마방}➵포항콜걸샵╝포항서양 안마방◊포항출장 선입금ヨ포항상남동 안마방↺포항후쿠오카 마사지

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 군산출장샵 .

    포항출장샵▣24시출장샵β포항탄트라 마사지(포항안마방 초이스 토렌트)θ{포항서양 안마방}モ포항마사지 커뮤니티✖포항pornhub 안마방┏포항대구 여관➛포항출장업소➳포항갓비비 마사지

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 제주출장샵 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 인제출장샵강추 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    포항출장샵»출장부르는법✚포항탄트라 마사지(포항승모근 마사지)╨{포항av 에이미}⇆포항민락동 마사지▪포항인천안마➡포항중동 안마방➽포항타이마사지 팁✑포항피로회복 마사지

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    포항출장샵■출장부르는법☼포항탄트라 마사지(포항부산 사상 출장)⊙{포항안마방 퇴폐}♘포항중랑구 마사지→포항김연아 안마방☆포항콜걸⇣포항감성마사지란○포항수안보 마사지

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 포항목포 모텔 추천 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 군산출장샵 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 목포출장안마 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 영덕통영 안마방 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 카지노사이트 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    포항출장샵↼24시출장샵┸포항탄트라 마사지(포항출장업계위)┸{포항신림 마사지}☆포항vip 마사지▬포항국 안마방 초이스↯포항동해 안마방◎포항출장┤포항일본 가슴 마사지

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 포항출장샵 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 온라인카지노 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 전주출장샵 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    포항출장샵卐예약☠포항탄트라 마사지(포항전립선 마사지 썰)╋{포항콧대 높이는 마사지}┳포항송탄 마사지φ포항마사지 가격ェ포항춘천 마사지▲포항고양이 마사지☣포항연예인 안마방

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    단양잠실 안마방
    수원출장샵 대전여성 마사지 바카라사이트.xyz
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    포항출장샵☃예약금없는출장샵☒포항탄트라 마사지(포항마사지 유출)◐{포항서귀포 마사지}◀포항안마┖포항전주 터미널 모텔ム포항단양 안마방▫포항보령 안마방☝포항햄스터 마사지

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.포항출장샵포항모텔출장마사지샵⇩포항콜걸☻{포항한국야동 안마방}포항안마방 시간↕포항영등포 안마방⊙포항영종도 마사지╟포항상록수 안마방┓온라인카지노출장부르는법포항산본 안마방«포항선릉 마사지░{포항부산 모텔 아가씨}포항마사지 질싸ル포항스타 안마방✐포항제주 안마방⇤포항kcm 안마방➼포항출장샵고흥익산 마사지포항주안 안마방⇘포항여인숙 여자┵〖포항군포 안마방〗포항오피스 걸┟포항콜걸만남┋포항모텔 다방 가격☆포항수유 안마방┈포항중국 마사지 후기▽포항조건 만남 카톡フ「포항출장 후기」포항합정 마사지☈포항강원도 안마방⇃포항철구 마사지♤포항안마방 방구⇜포항종아리 근육 마사지│포항베이징 마사지⊿(포항다방 티켓 썰)포항쉼터 안마방☪포항일산 여관◢포항광혜원 마사지➻포항안마방 전화┌포항러브젤 마사지⚘포항청라 마사지✂「포항안구 마사지」포항수원역 안마방▒포항안중 모텔☇포항스포츠마사지╬포항크리스마스 안마방⊿예약대전스웨 디시 마사지 란24시출장샵포항콜걸╛포항안마방 몰카 유출~ 대화 대박임○[포항송강동 마사지]포항진주 마사지⇚포항충북혁신도시 마사지↪포항하당 마사지△포항중국 마사지 가격➽포항출장샵포항출장샵온라인카지노포항태국마사지 후기포항세부 안마방포항일본 가슴 마사지포항안마방 에이스 토렌트포항출장샵포항손목터널증후군 마사지┴포항해운대 안마방◘【포항수원 마사지 추천】포항서해부 마사지↤포항정관 마사지ⓞ포항쿠알라룸푸르 마사지┗포항출장샵 예약금∴구리신촌 안마방

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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