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  • 거창온양 마사지
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  • 군산출장샵
  • 곡성태평역 안마방
  • 거창콜걸❁출장부르는법↦거창안마방 업소[거창안마방 방구]◄【거창목포 여관】╗거창산호동 마사지◇거창딥티슈 마사지⇛거창마사지 출장コ거창논현 안마방═거창로미로미 마사지

    As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

    천안출장샵
    French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

    거창콜걸⇟예약♡거창안마방 업소[거창아주동 마사지]ヨ【거창구미 마사지】↕거창신촌 안마방➳거창두통 마사지╚거창석계역 안마방☇거창안마방 몰 카☁거창유성 안마방

    The governments of more than 190 nations 곡성의정부 안마방 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

    거창콜걸▧예약금없는출장샵◐거창안마방 업소[거창방콕 마사지 추천]┡【거창마사지 남친】0거창온천장 안마방↶거창천안 만남ⓛ거창대구 모텔 촌⊙거창김포 안마방☁거창서면 안마방

    Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

    Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

    거창콜걸웃출장부르는법∴거창안마방 업소[거창정읍 안마방]┇【거창얼굴 마사지 기계】╛거창안마방 sex❖거창전주 마사지 클럽♛거창원주 안마방♪거창안마방 여자친구◘거창출장업소

    Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 포항출장샵 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

    거창콜걸➳예약금없는출장샵ν거창안마방 업소[거창역삼역 안마방]♪ 【거창압구정 마사지】»거창출장◤거창커플 마사지 tumblr♪거창카카오출장♦거창모텔 콜↾거창안마방 싼

    They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

    Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 강원도러시아 밤문화 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

    거창콜걸↕예약┣거창안마방 업소[거창안마방 마사지]✄【거창안마방 복장】↔거창홍진호 안마방U거창수암 마사지⇖거창중국전통마사지 거창속초 안마방«거창안마방 보빨

    No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 온라인카지노 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

    거창콜걸거창베트남 마사지 야동

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  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    거창콜걸➛출장부르는법✒거창안마방 업소[거창안산 안마방]♥【거창스포츠마사지 자격증】╪거창안마방 떡↞거창마사지 자격증™거창베트남 마사지●거창용산역 마사지╫거창마사지 자격증 종류

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 평택산본 마사지 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 대전출장샵 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

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    진해군대 안마방 대전출장안마 하남미금 안마방
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 구미출장안마 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    거창콜걸┱24시출장샵☻거창안마방 업소[거창포항 모텔 추천]♧【거창오키나와 마사지】❀거창타이마사지 꿀팁╦거창눈 마사지♤거창마사지 단속£거창안마방 찾기φ거창여관 미시

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 인천시흥 마사지 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    거창콜걸↽예약금없는출장샵◎거창안마방 업소[거창석계 안마방].【거창중국 마사지】☳거창[한국]새로운 안마방 아가씨.wmv.torrent↟거창출장안마 가격➽거창일본 안마방 야동◥거창국노 토렌트✲거창마송 여관

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 군산출장샵 .

    군산현풍 마사지
    전주카톡 출장 포항출장안마 원주다방 콜
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    거창콜걸☣24시출장샵➷거창안마방 업소[거창구의역 마사지]➳【거창강동구 안마방】✕거창토렌트 마사지☞거창구로디지털단지 마사지▶거창레이크호텔 마사지◎거창인천 마사지θ거창덕천 마사지

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 구미출장안마 .

    거창콜걸♗24시출장샵♂거창안마방 업소[거창안마방 시간]↝【거창콜걸】↺거창서울 출장안마✓거창동대구역 마사지☍거창오송 마사지➻거창복부 마사지•거창마사지 모음

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And smatoos.xyz .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 함평선릉 마사지 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    거창콜걸ノ24시출장샵☢거창안마방 업소[거창마사지 트위터]♪【거창예약금 없는 출장】▒거창동해 안마방♥거창안마방 나이⇊거창충주 안마방┒거창복부 마사지═거창호텔 출장

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    거창콜걸⇩예약금없는출장샵♘거창안마방 업소[거창제천 안마방]✿【거창범계 안마방】☢거창출장마사지 후기★거창철구 마사지的거창슈얼 마사지┾거창여성 마사지 후기┌거창출장마사지

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 서산포항 타이 마사지 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 카지노사이트 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 바카라사이트 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 강원도마사지 할인 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 카지노사이트 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    거창콜걸┌24시출장샵♕거창안마방 업소[거창상인동 안마방]╬【거창안마방 성병】♫거창아비게일 마사지↦거창안마방 무한샷ω거창안마방 아쿠아╫거창둔산동 엘 마사지╓거창마사지 몰 카

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 서울출장샵 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: gogotown.xyz showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 창원출장안마 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    거창콜걸☁예약◊거창안마방 업소[거창하동 안마방]╚【거창안마방 통화기록】☴거창공주 안마방✚거창팔자주름 마사지◆거창안마사 자격증┺거창안마방 짜파게티▦거창위례 마사지

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    장흥강남 안마방
    대구출장안마 창녕안마방 분수 loveyangju.xyz
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    거창콜걸‿예약금없는출장샵↯거창안마방 업소[거창부산역 모텔 추천]▒【거창대구 동대구역 모텔】➳거창새로운 안마방 아가씨 토렌트✉거창출장 안마▶거창광진구 안마방♚거창해수욕장 마사지 토렌트”거창겨드랑이 마사지

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.거창콜걸거창성인 안마방メ거창안마방 ssul➺【거창평택 여관】거창마사지 구인♂거창안마방 에이스⇅거창치앙마이 마사지⇂거창동네 안마방β대구출장샵예약금없는출장샵거창안마방 아쿠아♜거창서현 안마방◐〈거창스킨쉽 마사지〉거창세븐 안마방↺거창안마방 모음╝거창강동구 마사지♝거창탈모 마사지⇩거창콜걸경산범계역 안마방거창베이징 마사지➳거창삼성역 마사지⇡<거창야동 실제>거창오야넷 마사지⇃거창안마방 용어➡거창전효성 마사지✖거창마사지 일본◑거창타이 아로마 마사지☄거창일본 오일 마사지◐﹝거창연수동 안마방﹞거창김원중 안마방☭거창구미 마사지♔거창대구 사우나 마사지ワ거창스킨쉽 마사지↛거창김해 마사지✉거창안마방 미러↺﹛거창강남 안마방 내상﹜거창얼굴 마사지 기계┮거창구의동 안마방コ거창출장서비스➢거창문산 마사지★거창천안 퇴폐○거창간석동 안마방☰〈거창천안 조건 만남〉거창포항 마사지 후기○거창전지역출장마사지샵▶거창봉천 안마방▒거창부산 안마방 추천☢예약곡성만짜이 마사지24시출장샵거창원룸 출장☇거창마사지 분수◇〔거창아쿠아 마사지 젤〕거창분당 안마방ツ거창중국 우한 마사지↤거창연산 안마방╦거창눈 마사지╈거창콜걸거창콜걸바카라사이트거창서울 조건 만남거창해수욕장 마사지 토렌트거창일산 타이 마사지거창안마방 오랄거창콜걸거창안마방 몰래ラ거창파주 마사지ラ<거창금천구 안마방>거창보령 마사지✍거창김천 마사지▪거창목포 여관⇪거창안마방 video╡양구vip 마사지

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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