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  • 화순출장맛사지✿예약☋화순안마방 핸드폰〔화순스웨디시 마사지 단점〕╗[화순타이 아로마 마사지]➳화순남자 마사지[화순지행 안마방♣화순정자역 마사지╌화순사가정 안마방υ화순주안 마사지

    As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

    카지노사이트
    French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

    화순출장맛사지⇔24시출장샵✪화순안마방 핸드폰〔화순용암동 마사지〕╦[화순사상 출장]☼화순가평 안마방♪화순노원 마사지↡화순미아 안마방☻화순한국 안마방↩화순발안 모텔

    The governments of more than 190 nations 광명부산마사지 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

    화순출장맛사지✿예약금없는출장샵❂화순안마방 핸드폰〔화순영주 마사지〕▦[화순안마방 후장]┫화순포항 타이마사지↺화순서혜부 마사지 효능♥화순광주 여관⇚화순부산 해운대 출장☃화순계룡 안마방

    Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

    Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

    화순출장맛사지✣예약금없는출장샵☇화순안마방 핸드폰〔화순상암동 안마방〕▷[화순모텔 젤]〓화순계룡시 안마방↰화순가락시장 마사지チ화순용현동 마사지☆화순로미 마사지╥화순오일 마사지 av

    Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 전주출장샵 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

    화순출장맛사지☪출장부르는법♣화순안마방 핸드폰〔화순안마방 fc2〕┵[화순화성 마사지]➻화순익산 모텔 추천☁화순모텔 걸┥화순서양 마사지 야동➹화순동두천 마사지♤화순부산 모텔 추천

    They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

    Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 대구장요근 마사지 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

    화순출장맛사지↜예약⇣화순안마방 핸드폰〔화순거제 옥포 안마방〕↕[화순안마방 노출]▪화순강원 랜드 근처 마사지✖화순족저근막염 마사지◦화순구글 안마방◙화순안마방 무료야동╎화순구디 안마방

    No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 대전출장안마 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

    화순출장맛사지화순부산 출장 서비스

  • 거창태국마사지 후기
  • 화순서현역 안마방
  • 화순출장맛사지
  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    화순출장맛사지┵출장부르는법タ화순안마방 핸드폰〔화순합정 안마방〕✙[화순긴장성 두통 마사지]↹화순연예인 마사지⇌화순대구 커플 동영상◐화순마사지 일본어┠화순아로마마사지 꿀팁⇪화순호구포 마사지

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 장수마사지 출장 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 카지노사이트 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    카지노사이트
    정읍편두통 마사지 카지노사이트 곡성연산 안마방
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 구미출장안마 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    화순출장맛사지✏출장부르는법△화순안마방 핸드폰〔화순마사지 사진〕➴[화순씨엠립 마사지]カ화순시흥 마사지⇩화순홍대 마사지│화순토렌트 안마방オ화순태국 마사지 torrent£화순경주 동천동 안마방

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 포항출장샵후기 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    화순출장맛사지㊣출장부르는법ホ화순안마방 핸드폰〔화순마사지 하다가〕⊙[화순한국 마사지 야동]♠화순실제 안마방▤화순안마방 아줌마⇠화순동탄 마사지 후기▶화순영등포역 안마방ⓞ화순안마방 나이

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 온라인카지노 .

    광주안마방 용어
    신안고양이 안마방 대전출장샵 함안운정 안마방
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    화순출장맛사지↔예약금없는출장샵♟화순안마방 핸드폰〔화순안마방 동영상〕♠[화순손목터널증후군 마사지]❣화순마사지 교육┲화순장요근 마사지╟화순정액 마사지┖화순강남 안마방 내상✃화순안마방 교복

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 카지노사이트.xyz .

    화순출장맛사지⊙출장부르는법⊙화순안마방 핸드폰〔화순안마방 벌금〕❤[화순계산동 안마방]↲화순타이마사지 서비스↘화순수원역 안마방☆화순스웨디시 마사지 정의▨화순대구 안마방┽화순대전 마사지 후기

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 바카라사이트 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 동해출장 카톡 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    화순출장맛사지W예약금없는출장샵⇛화순안마방 핸드폰〔화순광명 안마방〕➽[화순전립선 마사지 효과]✎화순모텔 전화♣화순역삼역 안마방┦화순익산 모텔 추천♤화순대학동 마사지☎화순국 노

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    화순출장맛사지☝출장부르는법♀화순안마방 핸드폰〔화순금천구 마사지〕┬[화순서양 마사지 야동]╣화순한국야동 안마방↺화순일본 마사지 야동✄화순모텔 출장안마→화순선릉역 마사지▤화순평택역 마사지

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 함평석계 마사지 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 전주출장샵 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 바카라사이트 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 연천안마방 무한 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 광주출장샵 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    화순출장맛사지◇출장부르는법┮화순안마방 핸드폰〔화순온천장 안마방〕☱[화순피로회복 마사지]✲화순안마방 단속▲화순안마방 왕가슴녀╞화순춘천 안마방★화순부산 서면 모텔♨화순익산 마사지

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 진주출장안마 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 평택출장샵 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 카지노사이트 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    화순출장맛사지┠출장부르는법⇥화순안마방 핸드폰〔화순노원 안마방〕¤[화순마사지 초대]◇화순가슴 커지는 마사지β화순에로틱 마사지┴화순안마방 강남╒화순후불제 출장샵☏화순신주쿠 마사지

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    광명안마방 수위
    카지노사이트 평창인도 뉴델리 마사지 카지노사이트
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    화순출장맛사지┏24시출장샵»화순안마방 핸드폰〔화순다낭 vip 마사지〕◈[화순중국 우한 마사지]↪화순인도 마사지ღ화순구미 모텔╫화순왕십리 안마방ヌ화순얼굴 작아지는 마사지⇘화순출장대행

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.화순출장맛사지화순아로마 마사지 후기⇎화순양구 안마방╤[화순아마 시안]화순안마방 후기♤화순잇몸 마사지囍화순태백 마사지♈화순대화역 마사지┾온라인카지노출장부르는법화순모텔 마사지✂화순유성 마사지✘﹛화순지압 나무위키﹜화순안마방 모텔☪화순부산 해운대 안마방☄화순콜걸후기☐화순타이마사지 가격θ화순출장맛사지구리제주시 안마방화순안마방 가격▨화순출장가격╮{화순진해 마사지}화순전신 마사지↫화순이천 마사지▐화순강남구청 안마방☏화순안마방 교복ρ화순fc2 마사지]화순여교사 마사지♣(화순일본인 안마방)화순마사지 교육┉화순24시간 안마방┪화순러시아 밤문화→화순가슴커지는 마사지☂화순아로마 마사지 후기⇘화순전기 마사지┿(화순허리 마사지)화순[한국]새로운 안마방 아가씨.wmv.torrent┠화순산본 마사지↤화순안마방 사이트η화순안마방 사이트✄화순출장오쓰피걸←화순남양주 마사지╩﹛화순콜걸업소﹜화순천안 출장⇛화순안성 마사지♩화순남자 안마방╔화순안마방 커뮤니티●예약양평안마방 ts출장부르는법화순안마방 대전ξ화순오창 마사지♪【화순실제 안마방】화순계양구 안마방☏화순안마방 일베ソ화순안산 마사지⇛화순부산 연산동 출장♥화순출장맛사지화순출장맛사지바카라사이트화순유성 마사지화순남자 마사지화순미약 마사지화순마송 여관화순출장맛사지화순동인천 마사지♣화순러시아 안마방╀〈화순수암 마사지〉화순거제도 여관╆화순안마방 여자친구テ화순타이마사지 꿀팁→화순천안 마사지 ㅁㅁㄹ◈고성클리토리스 마사지

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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