출장부르는법
  • 장수중국마사지 후기
  • 대구출장안마
  • 카지노사이트
  • 대구에이스 안마방
  • 장수출장맛사지▩예약금없는출장샵╎장수청주 안마방<장수강릉 여관>↶‹장수sod 마사지›◄장수코스프레 안마방↛장수삼성역 마사지“장수서울 출장➼장수일산 타이 마사지→장수허리통증 마사지

    As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

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    French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

    장수출장맛사지ム출장부르는법☏장수청주 안마방<장수오피스 걸>↝‹장수익산 안마방›○장수안마방 질싸⇗장수새로운 안마방 아가씨 토렌트⚘장수안마방 골뱅이☼장수마사지 대딸┇장수전북 안마방

    The governments of more than 190 nations 경산안마방 토렌트 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

    장수출장맛사지▥출장부르는법↹장수청주 안마방<장수안마방 반말>╨‹장수안양 마사지›♩장수여관 미시◄장수분당 안마방⇣장수서혜부 마사지 란⇢장수일본마사지╛장수스웨디시 마사지 단점

    Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

    Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

    장수출장맛사지♩24시출장샵モ장수청주 안마방<장수안마방 몰카 토렌트>⇉‹장수성수역 마사지›➼장수베트남 다낭 마사지⇠장수오일 마사지 야동↔장수출장샵추천§장수인천 출장 마사지✚장수사당 안마방

    Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 전주출장안마 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

    장수출장맛사지♡예약금없는출장샵▪장수청주 안마방<장수구미 안마방>◇‹장수홍콩 안마방›▨장수아프리카tv 마사지┇장수용현동 마사지▨장수안마방 젤⇄장수안마방 감염╤장수통영 안마방

    They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

    Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 양양마사지 태국어 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

    장수출장맛사지┿출장부르는법①장수청주 안마방<장수미아 안마방>█‹장수동네 안마방›▣장수아스카 키라라 마사지☪장수서양 마사지 토렌트1장수안마방 똥꼬↕장수대전 유성 안마방➢장수마사지 fc2

    No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 부산출장안마 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

    장수출장맛사지장수타이 마사지 ㅁㅁㄹ

  • 평택셀프 마사지
  • 장수대천 안마방
  • 장수출장맛사지
  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    장수출장맛사지☼예약❀장수청주 안마방<장수동암역 마사지>☴‹장수안마방 홈런›♩장수금천구 안마방⇁장수출장녀❦장수타이마사지 추천⇩장수구의 안마방•장수수유역 마사지

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 신안상봉역 안마방 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 광주출장안마 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

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    부산동암역 마사지 대전출장샵 수원휴게텔 안마방
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 서울출장샵 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    장수출장맛사지│출장부르는법┅장수청주 안마방<장수딥티슈 마사지>┭‹장수동탄 마사지 후기›╞장수조건 출장↨장수출장 만남 보증금✄장수타이마사지 팁 서비스☈장수안마방 욕❂장수가슴커지는 마사지

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 계룡타이 마사지 퇴폐 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    장수출장맛사지➶예약금없는출장샵☍장수청주 안마방<장수부평 안마방>☣‹장수안마방 전화›■장수다낭 마사지 가격ヨ장수홍진호 안마방↰장수기흥구청 마사지↸장수카메라 마사지♬장수안마방 모텔

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 대구출장샵 .

    영암출장안마 가격
    무안부천역 안마방 바카라사이트.xyz 단양출장샵안내
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    장수출장맛사지☆24시출장샵⇗장수청주 안마방<장수턱근육 마사지>«‹장수배곧 마사지›╅장수안마방 키스 가능✐장수전주 터미널 모텔™장수에스테틱 마사지↮장수마사지 서양ⓛ장수운서동 안마방

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 카지노사이트 .

    장수출장맛사지♦24시출장샵✗장수청주 안마방<장수야탑 마사지>☪‹장수구미 안마방›☌장수스포츠마사지↠장수신림동 여관♥장수푸켓 크리스틴 러브 마사지☂장수tumblr 안마방↞장수안마방 휴게

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 바카라사이트 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 안양마사지 테라피 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    장수출장맛사지✄예약♨장수청주 안마방<장수마사지 팁>◊‹장수태국마사지 불법›➴장수서울 출장안마◙장수성신여대 마사지♥장수마사지 홈런│장수향남 안마방☇장수햄스터 마사지

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    장수출장맛사지⇣예약╀장수청주 안마방<장수fc 마사지>◘‹장수안마방 경찰›⇁장수출장시☾장수의정부 대딸방☾장수아로마마사지 꿀팁✎장수여성전용 안마방ε장수국산 안마방

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 성주안마방 키스 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 창원출장안마 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 군산출장샵 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 경상북도러시아 마사지 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 수원출장안마 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    장수출장맛사지☳24시출장샵◄장수청주 안마방<장수진주 오피>❉‹장수오야넷 마사지›╦장수필승 안마방❂장수림프절 마사지▲장수춘천 마사지テ장수왕십리 마사지♕장수비 안마방

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 카지노사이트 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 포항출장샵 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 바카라사이트 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    장수출장맛사지◎24시출장샵ニ장수청주 안마방<장수오류동 마사지>├‹장수태백 마사지›➡장수안마방 입에 사정◑장수눈붓기빼는 마사지⇩장수평택역 안마방ワ장수출장 후기→장수서산 마사지

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    진도부산역 안마방
    대전출장안마 철원송파 안마방 광주출장샵
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    장수출장맛사지▥24시출장샵♣장수청주 안마방<장수청주 마사지>╳‹장수토렌트 마사지›▲장수정왕 안마방♪장수수유역 아로마 마사지φ장수남성전용 마사지〓장수출장 카톡⇔장수fc2 한국 마사지

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.장수출장맛사지장수야 동 마사지┋장수영일대 마사지❀‹장수이영학 안마방›장수강릉 모텔 가격✓장수타이마사지 ㅁㅁㄹ┼장수서혜부 마사지⇍장수모텔 부산§광주출장안마24시출장샵장수안마방 시스템▦장수출장샵ⓛ[장수사우나 마사지]장수중동 안마방⇘장수얼굴 마사지 기계⇩장수박중현 안마방♂장수마사지 효능➧장수출장맛사지광주안마방 몰래장수안마방 대딸☂장수구미 봉곡동 마사지☀‹장수양배추 안마방›장수아산 출장 만남➼장수안마방 가성비↔장수마사지 맛사지↸장수안마방 엉덩이㍿장수콜걸추천▄장수대전 마사지 후기▶‹장수안마방 사정›장수신촌 마사지┉장수서울출장안마イ장수동네 안마방╳장수안마사 자격증┱장수광주 대딸방↾장수구글재펜⇥(장수마사지 젤)장수신림동 안마방╥장수출장마사지マ장수가슴커지는 마사지┇장수사우나 마사지⇥장수광혜원 마사지☀장수텀블러 마사지▤﹛장수라페 안마방﹜장수창원 마사지↯장수고딩 안마방↺장수하단 안마방☢장수아주동 마사지╛24시출장샵횡성영주 마사지24시출장샵장수중국전통마사지 팁☆장수이동국 안마방⇞﹛장수체코 마사지 fc2﹜장수동네 안마방↕장수성대 마사지★장수트레이너 마사지┣장수오피キ장수출장맛사지장수출장맛사지울산출장샵장수동인천 마사지장수대화역 마사지장수오일 마사지 야동장수동두천 마사지장수출장맛사지장수갓비비 마사지»장수모텔 여자★【장수마사지 흥분】장수천안역 여관▧장수양구 안마방☪장수천안 안마방 후기⇩장수덕천동 마사지✍경주안마방 ssul

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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