24시출장샵
  • 과천렉시벨 마사지
  • 천안출장샵
  • 군산출장안마
  • 구미안마방 백마
  • 과천콜걸╭예약금없는출장샵⇣과천안성 안마방【과천당동 안마방】☒「과천안마방 태국」☠과천안마방 휴게텔↢과천중국식 마사지╕과천스웨 디시 마사지 란➼과천맹인 마사지♣과천pj 안마방

    As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

    창원출장안마
    French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

    과천콜걸➦예약╩과천안성 안마방【과천모텔 걸】⇗「과천출장미인아가씨」▦과천안마방 bj▄과천마사지 일본어♪과천김포 마사지⇛과천별내 안마방├과천울란바토르 마사지

    The governments of more than 190 nations 진도콜걸만남 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

    과천콜걸➴예약금없는출장샵♗과천안성 안마방【과천안마방 김치남】▨「과천송탄 여관」┷과천광주 모텔☢과천허벅지 마사지ホ과천안마방 분수➚과천마산 안마방♫과천구글재펜

    Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

    Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

    과천콜걸☵예약⊙과천안성 안마방【과천안마방 몰래】☪「과천마사지 분수」█과천콜걸┎과천석남동 안마방➻과천오일 마사지 야동ヘ과천응암동 마사지♞과천세븐 상추 안마방

    Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 구미출장안마 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

    과천콜걸➡예약금없는출장샵웃과천안성 안마방【과천공항신도시 마사지】☢「과천목동 마사지」⇅과천부산역 마사지✂과천일산 안마방 가격☎과천안마방 전화번호 저장━과천산남동 마사지☪과천홈 타이 마사지

    They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

    Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 오산잠실 안마방 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

    과천콜걸➶출장부르는법✪과천안성 안마방【과천정왕동 안마방】┓「과천팔자주름 마사지」▨과천오키나와 마사지✈과천손목터널증후군 마사지╢과천회음부 마사지»과천수원 안마방┨과천경포대 안마방

    No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – qdomain.xyz – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

    과천콜걸과천주갤 안마방

  • 파주텔레그램 야동
  • 과천답십리 안마방
  • 과천콜걸
  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    과천콜걸⇋24시출장샵☛과천안성 안마방【과천해운대 모텔】↕「과천강아지 마사지」⇜과천경마 시간➚과천거유 마사지♬과천구의 안마방╙과천용산구 안마방↶과천대구 여관

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 대전다낭 에덴 마사지 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 카지노사이트 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    카지노사이트
    경상북도안마방 짜파게티 대구출장샵 태안다방 모텔
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 부산출장안마 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    과천콜걸☂예약금없는출장샵◀과천안성 안마방【과천전주 마사지 추천】┯「과천서양 마사지 fc2」⇪과천모텔 출장♥과천마사지 섹스➻과천새로운 안마방 아가씨 토렌트♜과천여교사 마사지║과천성장판 마사지

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 김해다낭 호텔 마사지 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    과천콜걸▦예약⇚과천안성 안마방【과천안마방 단속 일베】♤「과천pj 안마방」┕과천안마방 빨리싸면❈과천뱃살 마사지╕과천전주 타이 마사지▩과천마사지 의자♝과천안마방 수입

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 카지노사이트 .

    인천동인천 마사지
    완주상무지구 안마방 카지노사이트 임실귀 마사지
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    과천콜걸⇪예약✖과천안성 안마방【과천가슴 마사지】┋「과천안마방 실사」◦과천남자 안마방►과천탄트라 마사지↓과천타이 출장 마사지◇과천홈케어 마사지♢과천전립선 마사지 썰

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 창원출장안마 .

    과천콜걸⇦예약⇞과천안성 안마방【과천천안 출장마사지】○「과천대화역 마사지」♠과천경동맥 마사지﹄과천일본마사지┠과천수원 마사지♀과천출장샵예약포항♥과천서면 안마방

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 서울출장안마 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 강원도수원역 마사지 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    과천콜걸ス출장부르는법♂과천안성 안마방【과천서산 마사지】┗「과천커플 마사지 후기」 과천남편 마사지❈과천안마도◁과천지저분한 섹스 나고야 여성 마사지☈과천제주시 안마방◕과천24시간 안마방

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    과천콜걸➴출장부르는법❃과천안성 안마방【과천출장샵】⇩「과천강남 안마방 내상」◢과천오십견 마사지☏과천양산 안마방╝과천교대 안마방£과천영주 마사지ホ과천덕천동 마사지

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 진주남부터미널 안마방 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 군산출장안마 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 카지노사이트 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 순천저주파 마사지 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 카지노사이트 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    과천콜걸┿출장부르는법┅과천안성 안마방【과천일본야동 마사지】●「과천부천역 안마방」⇜과천안마방 스탭➽과천출장서비스╨과천동대구역 모텔 추천☇과천체코 마사지▷과천온양 마사지

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 대구출장샵 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 울산출장안마 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 대전출장샵 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    과천콜걸ム출장부르는법ν과천안성 안마방【과천경산 마사지】┇「과천하단 안마방」⊿과천논현 안마방☏과천마사지 av┶과천여자 모텔♦과천평택 모텔 추천﹌과천안마방 청룡열차

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    평창부산 마사지
    진주출장샵 함평콜걸출장마사지 바카라사이트
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    과천콜걸❤예약★과천안성 안마방【과천콜걸후기】➵「과천불알 마사지」ღ과천경산 안마방↹과천사이판 마사지ノ과천모텔 다방 가격✕과천다방 티켓 썰☢과천안마방 내부

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.과천콜걸과천출장 후기☐과천홍성 안마방↦「과천국노」과천당동 안마방✐과천마사지 수면실☀과천러시아 밤문화▀과천목포 안마방┩대구출장샵예약금없는출장샵과천국산 마사지╓과천피로회복을 위한 건강 마사지➸〖과천안마방 단골〗과천동대구 여관☶과천연예인 마사지┫과천역삼동 마사지♂과천평촌 안마방ナ과천콜걸구미이진호 안마방과천부산 서면 안마방⇡과천가산 마사지☵﹛과천연수동 마사지﹜과천안마방 경찰✓과천이천 안마방➻과천테니스공 마사지╅과천club 마사지⇢과천안마방 노콘☣과천성기 마사지★{과천안마방 텀블}과천성수역 마사지♐과천안마방 실장♪ 과천구의 안마방┃과천안마방 경험ェ과천여성전용 마사지 구인☣과천경포대 안마방☪【과천수원역 안마방】과천안마방 쓰리섬☎과천콜걸☣과천19금 마사지✍과천전립선 마사지↣과천두통 마사지┲과천양재역 안마방┸『과천경락 마사지』과천마사지 하드▐과천사당 마사지☼과천가산동 안마방✃과천양재역 마사지⇣예약금없는출장샵음성문정동 마사지예약과천수원역 안마방─과천안마방 단속시간✖【과천이동국 안마방】과천계산동 안마방↦과천사각근 마사지囍과천트랜스젠더 안마방♘과천안산 마사지 추천┠과천콜걸과천콜걸부산출장안마과천영등포역 안마방과천민락동 마사지과천손목 마사지과천마사지 기획물과천콜걸과천일본 마사지 야동↺과천헬로 마사지✏〔과천마사지 품번〕과천타이 안마방♂과천비염 마사지┌과천수안보 안마방キ과천타이 마사지 썰●평창마사지 받다가

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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